When you experience absent-mindedness, it is often a problem of encoding. Perhaps you were distracted while trying to learn information. For instance, how many times you have lost your keys or misplaced the remote control. Distraction reduces encoding efficiency while memory requires conscious attention. Thus, distraction explains why you put your keys in the refrigerator and threw the remote control in the waste bin. A common solution to this is to retrace your steps.
Incapability of the conscious mind. All information cannot be sent to long-term memory. It will not accept information unless it is provided by the special language that it understands. There may arise some problems while memorizing due to,
Incapable of memorizing anything by the right method
Due to absent-mindedness
Yes, people with excellent memory can also be absent-minded. Here is a popular example.
Louis Pasteur was dining at home with his friends. When his friends were about to eat the grapes served for dessert, he stopped them by saying, ”there is nothing as dangerous as eating grapes without washing them first”, and he washed his grapes in a glass of water. He then explained to them all the bacilli and microbes that may be found in a cluster of grapes. Everybody listened raptly, but suddenly the spell was broken by a general burst of laughter. Pasteur had unconsciously picked up the glass of water in which he had drowned so many germs and taken one big swallow. Pasteur was not the last to laugh at his absent-mindedness.
So basically, if you pay attention to anything, you will remember it. Many times when we are listening to a lecture, our mind wanders somewhere else.
However, when we use memory techniques to memorize then we retain information for a longer period of time.